Prysmian Cables & Systems

Categories of Risks

OVERVIEW

The policy of value creation that motivates the Prysmian Group has always been based on effective risk management. Since 2012, by adopting the provisions on risk management introduced by the "Italian Stock Exchange Self-Regulatory Code for Listed Companies - Ed. 2014" (Self-Regulatory Code), Prysmian has taken the opportunity to strengthen its model governance and implement an advanced system of Risk Management that promotes proactive management of risks using a structured and systematic tool to support the main business decision-making processes. In fact, this Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) model, developed in line with internationally recognised models and best practice, allows the Board of Directors and management to consciously evaluate the risk scenarios that could compromise achievement of the strategic objectives and to adopt additional tools able to anticipate, mitigate or manage significant exposures.

The Group Chief Risk Officer (CRO), designated to govern the ERM process, is responsible for ensuring, together with management, that the main risks facing Prysmian and its subsidiaries are promptly identified, evaluated and monitored over time. A special Internal Risk Management Committee (consisting of the Group's Senior Management) also ensures, through the CRO, that the ERM process is developed in a dynamic way by taking account of changes in the business, of needs and events that have an impact on the Group over time. The CRO reports periodically (at least twice a year) on such developments to the top management. Please refer to the "Corporate Governance" section of this report for a discussion of the governance structure adopted and the responsibilities designated to the bodies involved.

The ERM model adopted (and formalised within the Group ERM Policy issued in accordance with the guidelines on the Internal Control and Risk Management System approved by the Board of Directors on 25 February 2014) follows a top-down approach, whereby it is steered by Senior Management and by medium to long-term business objectives and strategies. It extends to all the types of risk/opportunity for the Group, represented in the Risk Model - shown in the following diagram - that classifies the risks of an internal or external nature characterising the Prysmian business model in five categories:

Members of management involved in the ERM process are required to use a clearly defined common method to measure and assess specific risk events in terms of Impact, Probability of occurrence and adequacy of the existing Level of Risk Management, meaning:

Risk assessment criteria

Impatto_Probabilita_ENG

This comprehensive view of the Group's risks allows the Board of Directors and Management to reflect upon the level of the Group's risk appetite, and so identify the risk management strategies to adopt, meaning the assessment of which risks and with what priority it is thought necessary to improve and optimise mitigation actions or simply to monitor the exposure over time. The adoption of a particular risk management strategy, however, depends on the nature of the risk event identified, so in the case of:

ERM is a continuous process that, as stated in the ERM Policy, forms part of the Group's three-year strategic and business planning process, by identifying potential events that could affect sustainability, and that are updated annually with the involvement of key members of management.

In 2014 this process involved more than 30 business managers, allowing the most significant risk factors to be identified and assessed; the main information emerging from this process, along with the strategies adopted to mitigate the impacts, are reported in the following paragraphs.

The classification used in the Risk Model just described is used to discuss the significant risk factors for each category and the strategies adopted to mitigate such risks. Financial risks are discussed in detail in the Explanatory Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Section D (Financial Risk Management). As stated in the Explanatory Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements (Section B.1 Basis of preparation), the Directors have assessed that there are no financial, operating or other kind of indicators that might provide evidence of the Group's inability to meet its obligations in the foreseeable future and particularly in the next 12 months. In particular, based on its financial performance and cash generation in recent years, as well as its available financial resources at 31 December 2014, the Directors believe that, barring any unforeseeable extraordinary events, there are no significant uncertainties, such as to cast significant doubts upon the business's ability to continue as a going concern.

STRATEGIC RISKS

Risks associated with the competitive environment

Many of the products offered by the Prysmian Group, primarily in the Trade & Installers and Power Distribution businesses, are made in conformity with specific industrial standards and so are interchangeable with those offered by major competitors. Price is therefore a key factor in customer choice of supplier. The entry into mature markets (eg. Europe) of non-traditional competitors, meaning small to medium manufacturing companies with low production costs and the need to saturate production capacity, together with a possible contraction in demand translate into strong competitive pressure on prices with possible consequences for the Group's expected margins.

In addition, although barriers to entry, linked to difficult-to-replicate ownership of technology, know-how and track record, limit the number of operators able to compete effectively on a global scale in high value-added segments like High Voltage underground cables, Optical Cables, and, albeit to a much lesser extent, Submarine cables, it is not possible to rule out potential new entrants in these market segments or an escalation in competition from operators already on the market, with potentially negative impacts on both sales volumes and sales prices.

The strategy of rationalising production facilities currently in progress, the consequent optimisation of the cost structure, the policy of geographical diversification and, last but not least, the ongoing search for innovative technological solutions, all help the Group to address the potential effects arising from the competitive environment.

Risks associated with changes in the macroeconomic environment and in demand

Factors such as changes in GDP and interest rates, the ease of getting credit, the cost of raw materials, and the overall level of energy consumption, significantly affect the energy demand of countries which in turn, faced with continuing economic difficulties, reduce their investments in market development. Similarly, government incentives for alternative energy sources are also reduced. Within the Prysmian Group, the submarine cable business (and to a lesser extent that of high voltage cables) is being affected by the contraction of demand in the European market, in which it is highly concentrated, due to the ongoing local economic downturn.

To counter this risk, the Group is pursuing, on the one hand, a policy of geographical diversification in non- European countries (eg. Vietnam, Philippines, etc.) and, on the other, a strategy to reduce costs by ationalisingits production structure globally in order to mitigate possible negative effects on the Group's performance from reduced sales and shrinking margins.

Risks associated with dependence on key customers

In the SURF business, the Prysmian Group has a significant business relationship with Petrobras, a Brazilian oil company, for the supply of umbilical cables and flexible pipes, developed and manufactured at the factory in Vila Velha, Brazil. A possible decline in demand for umbilical cables and/or a change in technological demand for flexible pipes by Petrobras could in the short to medium term have an impact on the partial or other sustainability of the business in Brazil.

While committed to maintaining and strengthening its business relationship with this customer over time, the Group has initiated progressive diversification of its customer portfolio by evaluating the possibility of opening up to the export market.

Risk of instability in emerging countries where the Group operates

The Prysmian Group operates and has production facilities and/or companies in Asia, Latin America, the Middle East and Eastern Europe. The Group's activities in these countries are exposed to different risks linked to local regulatory and legal systems, the imposition of tariffs or taxes, political and economic instability, and exchange rate risks.

Significant changes in the macroeconomic, political, tax or legislative environment of such countries could have an adverse impact on the Group's business, results of operations and financial condition.

Risks in relation to acquisitions

The Group reviews on ongoing basis acquisition targets and may from time to time incur in additional indebtedness to finance such acquisitions. To the extent that the Group concludes further acquistions in the near future, the above risks regarding integration challenges would be enhanced.

FINANCIAL RISKS

The Prysmian Group's risk management strategy focuses on the unpredictability of markets and aims to minimise the potentially negative impact on the Group's financial performance. Some types of risk are mitigated by using financial instruments (including derivatives).

Financial risk management is centralised with the Group Finance Department which identifies, assesses and hedges financial risks in close cooperation with the Group's operating companies.

The Group Finance, Administration and Control Department provides written guidelines on monitoring risk management, as well as on specific areas such as exchange rate risk, interest rate risk, credit risk, the use of derivative and non-derivative instruments, and how to invest excess liquidity.

Such financial instruments are used solely to hedge risks and not for speculative purposes.

Risks associated with availability of financial resources and their cost

The volatility of the international banking and financial system could represent a potential risk factor in terms of raising finance and its associated cost. Prysmian Group believes that it has significantly mitigated such a risk insofar as, in recent years, it has always been able to raise sufficient financial resources, and at a competitive cost. In particular, in June 2014, the Group obtained a five-year revolving credit facility for Euro 1,000 million (Credit Agreement 2014) from a syndicate of premier banks. This agreement is notable not only for the large sum secured thanks to strong interest by the lenders involved, but also for its more competitive cost than existing facilities. The agreement also confirms the more relaxed level of financial covenants already applied to the Group for the facility obtained from Mediobanca - Banca di Credito Finanziario S.p.A. discussed below. On the same date as entering this new agreement, the Group extinguished early the Revolving Credit Facility 2010, originally due to expire on 31 December 2014 and carrying a maximum permitted drawdown of Euro 400 million. The Term Loan Facility 2010, also maturing on 31 December 2014, was extinguished early on 28 February 2014 with repayment of the outstanding balance of Euro 184 million. In February 2014, the Group obtained a five-year revolving facility for Euro 100 million from Mediobanca – Banca di Credito Finanziario S.p.A. and in December 2013 a loan for Euro 100 million from the European Investment Bank (EIB) to fund the Group's European R&D plans over the period 2013-2016. In March 2013, Prysmian completed the placement of a convertible bond with institutional investors for Euro 300 million, with a 1.25% coupon and maturity in March 2018. Before this, in March 2011, the Group had entered into a long- term loan agreement for Euro 800 million (Credit Agreement 2011) with a syndicate of leading banks. This five-year agreement comprises a loan for Euro 400 million (Term Loan Facility 2011) and a revolving facility for Euro 400 million (Revolving Credit Facility 2011). In addition, the placement of an unrated bond with institutional investors on the Eurobond market was completed in March 2010 for a nominal total of Euro 400 million with a 5.25% coupon and maturity in April 2015.

The annual interest rate on the Credit Agreements is equal to the sum of:

As at 31 December 2014, the Group's total financial resources, comprising cash and cash equivalents and undrawn committed credit lines, came to in excess of Euro 1 billion.

A detailed analysis of "Borrowings from banks and other lenders" can be found in the Explanatory Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

Financial covenants

The credit agreements mentioned in the preceding paragraph contain a series of financial and non-financial covenants with which the Group must comply. These covenants could restrict the Group's ability to increase its net debt, other conditions remaining equal; should it fail to satisfy one of the covenants, this would lead to a default event which, unless resolved under the terms of the respective agreements, could lead to their termination and/or an early repayment of any amounts drawn down. In such an eventuality, the Group might be unable to repay the amounts demanded early, which in turn would give rise to a liquidity risk.

The financial covenants are measured at the half-year close on 30 June and at the full-year close on 31 December. All covenants, financial or otherwise, were fully observed at 31 December 2014. In particular:

As things stand and in view of the level of the financial covenants reported above, Prysmian Group believes that it will not have to face this risk in the near future. A more detailed analysis of the risk in question can be found in the Explanatory Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

Exchange rate fluctuation

The Prysmian Group operates internationally and is therefore exposed to exchange rate risk for the various currencies in which it operates (principally the US Dollar, British Pound, Brazilian Real, Turkish Lira and Chinese Renminbi). Exchange rate risk occurs when future transactions or assets and liabilities recognised in the statement of financial position are denominated in a currency other than the functional currency of the company which undertakes the transaction.

To manage exchange rate risk arising from future trade transactions and from the recognition of foreign currency assets and liabilities, most Prysmian Group companies use forward contracts arranged by Group Treasury, which manages the various positions in each currency.

However, since Prysmian prepares its consolidated financial statements in Euro, fluctuations in the exchange rates used to translate the financial statements of subsidiaries, originally expressed in a foreign currency, could affect the Group's results of operations and financial condition.

A more detailed analysis of the risk in question can nonetheless be found in the "Financial Risk Management" section of the Explanatory Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

Interest rate fluctuation

Changes in interest rates affect the market value of the Prysmian Group's financial assets and liabilities as well as its net finance costs. The interest rate risk to which the Group is exposed is mainly on long-term financial liabilities, carrying both fixed and variable rates.

Fixed rate debt exposes the Group to a fair value risk. The Group does not operate any particular hedging policies in relation to the risk arising from such contracts since it considers this risk to be immaterial. Variable rate debt exposes the Group to a rate volatility risk (cash flow risk). The Group uses interest rate swaps (IRS) to hedge this risk, which transform variable rates into fixed ones, thus reducing the rate volatility risk. Under such IRS contracts, the Group agrees with the other parties to swap on specific dates the difference between the contracted fixed rates and the variable rate calculated on the loan's notional value. A potential rise in interest rates, from the record lows reached in recent years, is a risk factor in coming quarters.

A more detailed analysis of the risk in question can nonetheless be found in the "Financial Risk Management" section of the Explanatory Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

Credit risk

Credit risk is the Prysmian Group's exposure to potential losses arising from the failure of trade or financial counterparties to discharge their obligations. This risk is monitored centrally by the Group Finance Department, while customer-related credit risk is managed operationally by the individual subsidiaries. The Group does not have significant concentrations of credit risk. It nonetheless has procedures for ensuring that its trade counterparties are of recognised reliability and that its financial counterparties have high credit ratings. In addition, in mitigation of credit risk, the Group has a global trade credit insurance policy covering all its operating units.

A more detailed analysis of the risk in question can nonetheless be found in the "Financial Risk Management" section of the Explanatory Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

Liquidity risk

Liquidity risk is the risk that an entity does not have sufficient financial resources to meet its obligations to trade or financial counterparties on the agreed due dates.

With regard to the Prysmian Group's working capital cash requirements, these increase significantly during the first half of the year when it commences production in anticipation of order intake, with a consequent temporary increase in net financial debt.

Prudent management of liquidity risk involves the maintenance of adequate levels of cash, cash equivalents and short-term securities, the maintenance of an adequate amount of committed credit lines, and timely renegotiation of loans before their maturity. Due to the dynamic nature of the business in which the Prysmian Group operates, the Group Finance Department favours flexible arrangements for sourcing funds in the form of committed credit lines.

As at 31 December 2014, the Group's total financial resources, comprising cash and cash equivalents and undrawn committed credit lines, came to in excess of Euro 1 billion.

A more detailed analysis of the risk in question can nonetheless be found in the "Financial Risk Management" section of the Explanatory Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

Risks associated with fluctuations in commodity prices

The main commodities purchased by the Prysmian Group are copper and aluminium, accounting for more than 50% of the total raw materials used to manufacture its products.

The Group neutralises the impact of possible rises in the price of copper and its other principal raw materials through hedging activities and automatic sales price adjustment mechanisms.

The hedging activity is based on sales contracts or sales forecast, in case of unexpected forecast changes, the Group could be exposed to risks of fluctuations in commodity prices.

The Group Purchasing Department performs a central monitoring and coordination of sales transactions requiring the purchase of raw materials and of the related hedging activities carried out by each subsidiary. In addition, if the oil price were to stabilise at current levels, this could make the extraction market less appealing, which in turn could adversely affect revenues from the SURF and Oil & Gas businesses, although without a significant impact on the Group. In fact, these businesses account for only 5% of the Group's Sales and Adjusted EBITDA.

A more detailed analysis of the risk in question can nonetheless be found in the "Financial Risk Management" section of the Explanatory Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

OPERATIONAL RISKS

Responsibility for product quality/defects

Any defects in the design and manufacture of the Prysmian Group's products could give rise to civil or criminal liability in relation to customers or third parties. Therefore, the Group, like other companies in the industry, is exposed to the risk of legal action for product liability in the countries where it operates. In line with the practice followed by many industry operators, the Group has taken out insurance which it considers provides adequate protection against the risks arising from such liability. However, should such insurance coverage be insufficient, the Group's results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected. In addition, the Group's involvement in this kind of legal action and any resulting liability could expose it to a damage in reputation, with potential additional adverse consequences for its results of operations and financial condition.

Risks associated with non-compliance with the contractual terms of turnkey projects

Projects relating to submarine or underground connections with high/medium voltage cables feature contractual forms that entail "turnkey" project management and so require compliance with deadlines and quality standards, guaranteed by penalties calculated as an agreed percentage of the contract value and even involving the possibility of contract termination.

The application of such penalties, the obligation to compensate any damages as well as indirect effects on the supply chain in the event of late delivery or production problems, could significantly affect project performance and hence the Group's margins (for example, the Western HVDC Link project). Possible damage to market reputation cannot be ruled out.

Given the complexity of "turnkey" projects, Prysmian has implemented a quality management process involving extensive testing of cables and accessories before delivery and installation, as well as specific ad hoc insurance coverage, often through a pool of insurers, able to mitigate exposure to risks arising from production through to delivery.

Moreover, the ERM findings for this particular risk have led the Risk Management department, with the support of the Commercial area, to implement a systematic process of risk assessment for "turnkey" projects from as early as the bidding stage, with the aim of identifying, assessing and monitoring over time the Group's exposure to specific risks and of taking the necessary mitigation actions. The decision to present a bid proposal to the customer therefore also depends on the results of risk assessment.

In particular, during the last few days of April, the manufacture of the cables for the Western HVDC Link project in the United Kingdom encountered some technical problems, which were duly placed under technical investigation. As a result, for the purposes of the Quarterly Financial Report at 31 March 2014, the Directors had felt unable to estimate reliably the outcome of this contract, and so its revenues were recognised to the extent of the costs incurred. Following subsequent testing of the quality of the cable produced and analysis of the materials and the manufacturing process, the Directors felt able to make a reliable estimate of the project's revenues and costs. This led to the full elimination of the margins previously recognised on the contract and the recognition of a provision to cover the expected contract loss, with a total impact of Euro 53 million. In addition, the technical problems described above have resulted in the non- recognition of Euro 41 million in margins originally expected in 2014. Consequently, including non- recognition of the margin originally expected on this project in the year, the overall negative impact of the Western HVDC Link (UK) project on the results for 2014 was Euro 94 million.

It is not possible to exclude that in the future, in the face of any further technical problems on the Western HVDC Link contract, the Group may incur additional losses on top of those estimated by the Directors in the current Annual Financial Report.

Risk of business interruption through dependence on key assets

The submarine cables business is heavily dependent on certain key assets, such as the Arco Felice plant in Italy for the production of a particular type of cable and the cable-laying ships, the "Giulio Verne" and the "Cable Enterprise", some of whose technical capabilities are hard to find on the market. Any loss of one of these assets due to unforeseen natural disasters (eg. earthquakes, storms, etc.) or other accidents (eg. fire, terrorist attacks, etc.) and the consequent prolonged business interruption could have a critical economic impact on the Group's performance.

Prysmian addresses this risk through its systematic Loss Prevention program, under which specific inspections of the above assets allow it to identify the level of local risk and define actions that could be necessary to mitigate such risk.

As at 31 December 2014, all of the plants inspected were classified as "Excellent HPR", "Good HPR" or "Good not HPR"; no plant was classified as medium or high risk. In addition, specific disaster recovery plans have been developed that, by predetermining loss scenarios, allow all the appropriate countermeasures to be activated as soon as possible in order to minimise the impact of a catastrophic event.

Lastly, specific insurance cover for damage to assets and loss of associated contribution margin help minimise the risk's financial impact on cash flow.

Environmental risks

The Group's production activities in Italy and abroad are subject to specific environmental regulations, of which particularly important are those on soil and subsoil and on the presence/use of hazardous materials and substances, including for human health. Such regulations are imposing increasingly strict standards on companies, who are therefore forced to incur significant compliance costs.

With more than 89 plants, there is a theoretically high probability of an accident with consequences for the environment, as well as for the continuity of production. The resulting economic and reputational impact would be critical.

The Group's policy of acquisition-led growth could augment its exposure to environmental risks, with the addition of manufacturing facilities that fall short of its standards.

The management of environmental issues is centralised with the Health Safety & Environment (HSE) function that, by coordinating the local HSE functions, is responsible for organising specific training activities, for adopting systems to ensure strict adherence to regulations in accordance with best practices, as well as for monitoring risk exposures using specific indicators and internal and external auditing activities.

Lastly, it is reported that 93% of the Group's sites are certified under ISO 14001 (for environmental management systems) and 58% for OHSAS 18001 (for safety management).

LEGAL AND COMPLIANCE RISKS

Compliance risks associated with laws, regulations, Code of Ethics, Policies and Procedures

Compliance risk is the risk of incurring legal or administrative sanctions, material financial losses or reputational damage as a result of violations of laws, regulations, procedures, codes of conduct and best practices. Right at its inception, the Prysmian Group approved a Code of Ethics, a document which contains ethical standards and guidelines for conduct to be observed by all those engaged in activities on behalf of Prysmian or its subsidiaries, including managers, officers, employees, agents, representatives, contractors, suppliers and consultants. In particular, the Code of Ethics requires full compliance with current regulations and the avoidance of any kind of misconduct or illegal behaviour. The Group put in place organisational procedures designed to prevent violation of the principles of legality, transparency, fairness and honesty and is committed to ensuring their observance and practical application. Although the Group is committed to ongoing compliance with applicable regulations and to close supervision to identify any misconduct, it is not possible to rule out episodes in the future of non-compliance or violations of laws, regulations, procedures or codes of conduct by those engaged in performing activities on Prysmian's behalf, which could result in legal sanctions, fines or reputational damage, even on a material scale.

Risks relating to legal and tax proceedings

Prysmian S.p.A. and some Prysmian Group companies are currently involved in tax and legal proceedings in connection with their business, involving civil and administrative actions. In some of these cases, the company might not be able to accurately quantify the potential losses or penalties associated with such proceedings. In the event of an adverse outcome to such proceedings, the Group cannot rule out an impact, even for a material amount, on its business, results of operations and financial condition, as well as reputational damages that are hard to estimate.

Risks of non-compliance with Antitrust law

Its strong international presence in more than 50 countries means the Group is subject to antitrust law in Europe and every other country in the world in which it operates, each with more or less strict rules on the civil, administrative and criminal liability of the perpetrators of anti-competitive practices. In the last decade, local Antitrust Authorities have shown increasing attention to commercial activities by market players, also revealing a tendency for international collaboration between authorities themselves.

The geographical dispersion of its employees, the lack of knowledge at times of local regulations as well as market dynamics, make it difficult to monitor anti-competitive conduct by third parties like suppliers and competitors, exposing the Group to the risk of incurring economic sanctions with extremely high negative repercussions for the reputation and credibility of the Group's system of governance.

In line with the priorities identified by the ERM process, the Legal Department has taken steps, with the support of Group Compliance, to raise awareness of the issues at stake through the adoption of an Antitrust Code of Conduct that all Group employees, directors and managers are required to know and observe in the conduct their duties and in their dealings with third parties. These activities represent a first step in establishing an "antitrust culture" within the Group by stimulating pro-competitive conduct and by heightening individual accountability for professional conduct.

More specifically, the European Commission, the US Department of Justice and the Japanese antitrust authority started investigations in late January 2009 into several European and Asian electrical cable manufacturers to verify the existence of alleged anti-competitive practices in the high voltage underground and submarine cables markets. Subsequently, the Australian Competition and Consumers Commission ("ACCC") and the New Zealand Commerce Commission also started similar investigations. During 2011, the Canadian antitrust authority also started an investigation into a high voltage submarine project dating back to 2006. The investigations in Japan, New Zealand and Canada have ended without any sanctionsfor Prysmian. The other investigations are still in progress, except for the one by the European Commission, which has ended with the adoption of the decision described below.

In Australia, the ACCC has filed a case before the Federal Court arguing that Prysmian Cavi e Sistemi S.r.l. and two other companies violated antitrust rules in connection with a high voltage underground cable project awarded in 2003. Prysmian Cavi e Sistemi S.r.l. has filed its objections and presented its defence.

In Brazil, the local antitrust authority has started an investigation into several cable manufacturers, including Prysmian, that operate in the high voltage underground and submarine cables market. Prysmian has presented its preliminary defence, which has been rejected by the local competition authorities in a statement issued during the month of February 2015. The preliminary stage of the proceedings will now ensue, at the end of which the authorities will publish their concluding observations, to which the parties may respond with all their arguments in defence before a final decision is taken. During the month of December 2013, ABB and one of this company's senior managers signed an agreement with the Brazilian antitrust authority, under which they admitted the conduct alleged by the authority and pledged to cooperate with it and to each pay an agreed fine.

On 2 April 2014, the European Commission adopted a decision under which it found that, between 18 February 1999 and 28 January 2009, the world's largest cable producers, including Prysmian Cavi e Sistemi S.r.l., adopted anti-competitive practices in the European market for high voltage submarine and underground power cables. The European Commission held Prysmian Cavi e Sistemi S.r.l. jointly liable with Pirelli & C. S.p.A. for the alleged infringement in the period from 18 February 1999 to 28 July 2005, sentencing them to pay a fine of Euro 67.3 million, and it held Prysmian Cavi e Sistemi S.r.l. jointly liable with Prysmian S.p.A. and the Goldman Sachs Group Inc. for the alleged infringement in the period from 29 July 2005 to 28 January 2009, sentencing them to pay a fine of Euro 37.3 million. Prysmian has appealed against this decision to the General Court of the European Union and has submitted an application to intervene in the appeals respectively lodged by Pirelli & C. S.p.A. and the Goldman Sachs Group Inc. against the same decision. Both Pirelli & C. S.p.A. and the Goldman Sachs Group Inc. have in turn submitted applications to intervene in the appeal brought by Prysmian against the European Commission's decision. Prysmian has not incurred any financial outlay as a result of this decision having elected, pending the outcome of the appeals, to provide bank guarantees as security against payment of 50% of the fine imposed by the European Commission (amounting to approximately Euro 52 million) for the alleged infringement in both periods. As far as Prysmian is aware, Pirelli & C. S.p.A. has provided or is nonetheless preparing to provide the European Commission with a bank guarantee for 50% of the value of the fine imposed for the alleged infringement in the period 18 February 1999 - 28 July 2005. Pirelli & C. S.p.A. has also filed a civil action against Prysmian Cavi e Sistemi S.r.l. in which it demands to be held harmless for all claims made by the European Commission in implementation of its decision and for any expenses related to such implementation.

Prysmian Cavi e Sistemi S.r.l. started legal proceedings in February 2015, requesting that the claims brought by Pirelli & C. S.p.A. be rejected in full and that it should be Pirelli & C. S.p.A. which holds harmless Prysmian Cavi e Sistemi S.r.l., with reference to the alleged infringement in the period 18 February 1999 - 28 July 2005, for all claims made by the European Commission in implementation of its decision and for any expenses related to such implementation.

Following a detailed and careful analysis of the European Commission's ruling, and nonetheless considering this has been appealed and so could be submitted to second-instance judgement, as well as the fact that the investigations initiated by the Canadian Antitrust Authority have ended without any sanctions for Prysmian, it has been decided to partially release the existing provision.

Prysmian has also learned from several sources, including in the public domain, that some British utilities have filed actions in the High Court in London against certain cable manufacturers, including the Prysmian Group, to obtain compensation for damages allegedly suffered as a result of the alleged anti-competitive conduct condemned by the European Commission in the decision adopted in April 2014.

As at 31 December 2014, the amount of the provision is approximately Euro 170 million. Despite the uncertainty of the outcome of the investigations in progress and potential legal action by customers as a result of the European Commission's decision, the amount of this provision is considered to represent the best estimate of the liability based on the information now available.

PLANNING AND REPORTING RISKS

Planning and reporting risks are related to the adverse effects that irrelevant, untimely or incorrect information might have on the Group's strategic, operational and financial decisions. At present and in view of the reliability and effectiveness of internal procedures for reporting and planning, these risks are not considered to be relevant for the Group.